LEXICON > Byzantium (latin) : Βυζάντιο  (greek)

Byzantium noun, neutral
mod.gre: Bυζάντιo [viˈzandio]
old.gre: Bυζάντιoν [viˈzandion]
Byzantium: in history:
Historians refer to Byzantium as the period 330-1453 of the eastern part of the Roman empire, especially after the fall of Rome. The term as such, was first used by the german Hieronymus Wolf (1516-1580), instead of Eastern Roman Empire, or Pωμανία, which was the word used by the byzantines themselves (Romania, not Rumania). Hence, greeks call themselves: 'Romios' till today).
Byzantium: the city: (MAP)
Ancient legend has it that Byzas, a colonist from Megara (a city near Athens, today very small), founded Bυζάντιoν: Byzantion city at the european coast of the Bosporus (657 a.e.v.). A few centuries after that, the little city was chosen for its perfect position as the next capital of the roman empire by the roman emperor Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (Constantine I). He rebuilt it and inaugurated it on the 11th of May 330 e.v. He named it: (lat.) Nova Roma (=New Rome). But the city's greek nickname Kωνσταντίνoυ πόλις (=city of Constantine) soon became the official Kωνσταντινoύπoλις (=Constantinople). The sieges of the City were numerous. First fall: Tuesday 13th, April 1204 to the 4th Crusade: the City never recovered this unprecedented destruction. Final halosis: Tuesday, 29th, May 1453 to the Ottomans and Mehmet the Conqueror who made it the capital of the Ottoman empire usually referred to as Kostantiniye. \Dates given, are of the Julian Calendar\.
In colloquial greek we call the city for short: ΠOΛH [ˈpoli] = City.
The turks used to call it Istanbul (gre: εις την Πόλη [istiˈmboli] = to the City) and the name was made official by the Turkish Republic.
The City's unique, crucial geographical position on the bridge of continents and civilizations, characterizes all its history for more than 1600 years. Today, it is home for more than 14 million people, uniting with its marvellous modern bridges the shores and heartbeat of Europe and Asia.