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What is a font? by wikipedia
Unicode and html by wikipedia
Computer fonts by wikipedia
Unicode and multilingual support in HTML, fonts, Web browsers and other applications by Alan Wood
IT and communication - Datatekniikka ja viestinta by Jukka Korpela FINLAND in english and finnish
Tutorials and articles about all your questions, also excellent links. For serious study. Included : some pages in greek, german and russian.
Fonts for serious study! by
Linguist's Software Fonts for the Whole World .com
Encodings, ISO and more
ISO standards list by wikipedia
For languages, there are ISO standards for transliteration, for international codes, for character encoding, etc.
Language Codes - Languages
Codes for the representation of names of languages (Library of Congress, USA)
Tables with characters &#...;
Unicode Code Charts (PDF Version) for practically all languages
glyphs &#...; latin, ipa, greek
glyphs &#...; for international phonetic alphabet
Letter Databases for Languages: by the Eesti Keele Instituut ESTONIA
Description in depth and photos of all letters of all languages.
Euro - Symbol by M.T.Carrasco Benitez Also, check his other articles
Morse Code, the Alphabet of Airforces, by Stephen UK

links checked in Aug 2007